Adjectives ending in -ed & -ing

This lesson will describe when to use adjectives that end in -ed and when to use adjectives that end in -ing. The exercises for this topic are here.

What is an adjective?

An adjective is a describing word. Adjectives describe nouns (things).

Some examples.

  • He is an old man.
  • It is cold.
  • It’s a frustrating experience.
  • He is tired and needs to go to bed.
  • They’re worried about the exams.

What an interesting book!

Adjectives that End in -ed and -ing

Some adjectives end in -ed: Embarrassed, tired, excited. We use adjectives that end in -ed to describe feelings and experiences.

Some adjectives end in -ing: Embarrassing, tiring, exciting. We use adjectives ending in -ed to describe things that make us feel a certain way.

Physical work is very tiring, it makes me feel tired.

-ed Adjectives.

Describe a feeling

“He felt tired and went to bed.”

“The class was about regex expressions in MIDI hardware, the students were bored.”

“She’s studying music production because she’s interested in recording her own songs.”

Have you ever seen a film that really frightened you?

-ing Adjectives

Describe something that has an effect on someone or something.

After a tiring day he went to bed.

The class was about regex expressions in MIDI hardware, it was really boring.

She’s studying music production because thinks that it would be interesting to record her own songs.

Have you ever seen a film that was really frightening?

How do they work?

Let’s see how they relate.

  • If something is tiring it makes you feel tired.
  • If something is boring it makes you feel bored.
  • If something is interesting it makes you interested in it.

Frightening things make you feel frightened.

Example of Common Adjectives with -ed & -ing Endings

Here is a list of common adjectives in their -ed and -ing forms.

Adjective Ending in -edAdjectives Ending in -ing
AlarmedAlarming
AggravatedAggravating
AmusedAmusing
AnnoyedAnnoying
AstonishedAstonishing
AstoundedAstounding
BoredBoring
CaptivatedCaptivating
ChallengedChallenging
CharmedCharming
ComfortedComforting
ConfusedConfusing
ConvincedConvincing
DepressedDepressing
DisappointedDisappointing
DiscouragedDiscouraging
DisgustedDisgusting
DistressedDistressing
DisturbedDisturbing
EmbarrassedEmbarrassing
EncouragedEncouraging
EntertainedEntertaining
ExcitedExciting
ExhaustedExhausting
FascinatedFascinating
FrightenedFrightening
FrustratedFrustrating
FulfilledFulfilling
GratifiedGratifying
InspiredInspiring
InsultedInsulting
InterestedInteresting
MovedMoving
OverwhelmedOverwhelming
PerplexedPerplexing
PleasedPleasing
RelaxedRelaxing
RelievedRelieving
SatisfiedSatisfying
ShockedShocking
SickenedSickening
SoothedSoothing
SurprisedSurprising
TemptedTempting
TerrifiedTerrifying
ThreatenedThreatening
ThrilledThrilling
TiredTiring
TouchedTouching
TroubledTroubling
UnsettledUnsettling
WorriedWorrying
Common adjectives ending -ed & -ing

Conversation Questions Using -ed & -ing Adjectives.

Use these questions to practise using these adjectives in context. Try to repeat the adjective as many times as possible when you answer the questions.

  1. What do people do on public transport that you find annoying?
  2. What music do you find boring?
  3. What academic subjects do you find challenging?
  4. Do you know anyone who is really charming?
  5. Can you remember a time that you were really confused?
  6. Is there any music that you think is depressing?
  7. Can you remember a time when you did or said something embarrassing?
  8. What do you get excited about?
  9. What films do you think are really frightening? Which is the most frightening film that you have ever seen?
  10. Can you think of a time that you received some surprising news?
  11. What are you worried about?
  12. Is there any test or exam that you found really challenging?
  13. What music do you find relaxing?
  14. Are you a convincing liar?
  15. What hobbies are you interested in?
  16. When was the last time that you felt exhausted?
  17. What type of food do you find comforting when you are ill?
  18. What food do you think is disgusting?
  19. have you ever received a disappointing present?
  20. What can you do to wake yourself up when you are feeling tired?

Exercises